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antiquus was a close relative of extant African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis).Species previously referred to Palaeoloxodon are thus most parsimoniously explained as having diverged from the lineage of Loxodonta, indicating that Loxodonta has not been constrained to Africa.The Cervidae holds two subfamilies: the Old World deer of the Cervinae and the New World deer of the Capreolinae.

BEAST uses MCMC to average over tree space, so that each tree is weighted proportional to its posterior probability.

The lion (Panthera leo) is one of the big cats in the Felidae family and a member of genus Panthera.

It has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1996, as populations in African range countries declined by about 43% since the early 1990s.

Many extinct species have been identified only from incomplete fragments of some of their bones.

However, even if complete skeletons have been found, determining the relationships between species can be tricky because researchers often have to rely solely on the shapes of the bones.